Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Phenol Using C-TiO2 Nanocomposite

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Nano Chemical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Nano Chemical Engineering,Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. IRAN


Phenol is among toxic pollutants with a resilient degradability behavior the total removal of which via traditional techniques is impossible. In this research, Carbon-doped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst is produced via sol-gel technique. Various techniques are used to characterize TiO2 nano-photocatalyst such as XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and FE-SEM. Based on the results, the carbon introduced into titania structure has led to response towards visible light. The synthesized catalyst was implemented for photocatalytic removal of phenol in a fluidized bed reactor under UV and visible light. The effects of several significant parameters were investigated such as phenol concentration, pH, time, C/Ti molar ratio and catalyst content. The degradation of Phenol using this nanocomposite is 84 % under UV irradiation during a 180 min period and 70 % under visible irradiation during a 420 min period.


Main Subjects

[1] Tchobanoglous G., Burton F.L., “Wastewater Engineering Treatment, Disposal and Rease”, McGraw Hill (1991).
[2] Akbal F., Nur Onar A., Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol, Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 3: 295-302 (2003).
[3] Ksibi M., Zemzemi A., Boukchina R., Photocatalytic Degradability of Substituted Phenols over UV Irradiated TiO2, J. Photochemistry & Photobiology, 159: 61-70 (2003).
[4] Wang K., Hsieh Y., Chou M., Chang Ch., Photocatalytic Degradation of 2-Chloro and 2-Nitrophenol by Titanium Dioxide Suspensions in Aqueous Solution, Applied Catalysis B Environmental, 21: 1-8 (1999).
[5] Edwards J.D., “Industrial Wastewater Treatment, a Guide Book”, Florida (USA), Lewis Publishers (2000).
[6] Priya S.Sh., Premalatha M., Anantharaman N., Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Phenolic Wastewater: Potential, Challenges and Opportunities, J. Engineering Applied Sciences, 3:36-41 (2008).
[7]  سمرقندی، محمدرضا؛ جعفری، سیدجواد؛ صمدی، محمد تقی؛ حذف فوتوکاتالیستی کادمیوم با استفاده از نانوذرات روی اکسید، نشریه شیمی و مهندسی شیمی ایران، (1)35: 1 تا 11 (1395).
[8] Rahmani A, Enayati Movafagh A., Investigation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol Through UV/TiO2 Process, Water & Wastewater, 58:32-37 (2006).
[9] Zhou M., Yu J., Cheng B., Effects of Fe-Doping on the Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous TiO2 Powders Prepared by an Ultrasonic Method, J. Hazardous Materials, 137(3): 1838-47 (2006).
[10] American Public Health Association, Water Environment Federation, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, American Water Works Association, 21st ed. Washington DC: APHA (2005).
[12] Andreozzi R., Caprio V., Insola A., Marotta R., Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) for Water Purification and Recovery, Catalysis Today, 53: 51-59 (1999).
[13] Hench L.L., West J.K., The Sol-Gel Process, Chemical Reviews, 90: 33-72 (1990).
[14] Klein L.C., Sol-Gel Optics: Processing and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media, 259 (2013).
[15] Bahramian A., Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Sol-Gel Derived Coral-like TiO2 Nanostructured Thin Film, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(2): 27-41 (2016).
[16] Xiao Q., Zhang J., Xiao C., Si Z., Tan X., Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue in Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Suspension, Solar Energy, 82:706-713 (2008).
[17] Mohammadi M., Sabbaghi S., Photo-Catalytic Degradation of 2,4-DCP Wastewater Using MWCNT/TiO2 Nano-Composite Activated by UV and Solar Light,Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 1-2: 24-29 (2014).