مروری بر صمغ کتیرا و استفاده از آن در زیست‌پزشکی

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 مجتمع پژوهشی ایران مرکزی، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای، یزد، ایران

2 گروه پژوهشی مهندسی تولید فراورده‌های غذایی، انستیتو ملی غذا، دانشگاه صنعتی دانمارک، لینگ بای، دانمارک

چکیده

کتیرا پلی‌ساکاریدی آنیونی است که از گونه‌های آسیایی گَوَن ترشح می‌شود و ایران بزرگ­ ترین تولید کننده آن در جهان است. مهم­ ترین ویژگی کتیرا، قوام دهندگی و کاهش کشش سطحی به صورت همزمان است. این ماده از قدیم دارای کاربرد گسترده در صنایع غذایی، دارویی، آرایشی، نساجی و پزشکی بوده است. متأسفانه در دهه‌های پیشین به دلیل برخی مسئله ­ها مانند وقوع جنگ بین ایران و عراق و استفاده از صمغ‌های ارزان‌تر و دارای کیفیت ثابت‌تر مثل زانتان، بازار فروش کتیرا کاهش چشمگیری یافته است. البته در سال‌های اخیربا توجه به ویژگی­ های دلخواه این ماده، سیر افزایشی فزاینده برای ایجاد فرصت‌های جدید استفاده از کتیرا به ویژه در زیست‌پزشکی آغاز شده است. در این مطالعه، پس از اشاره به ویژگی‌های کتیرا، پژوهش‌های انجام شده اخیر با موضوع کاربردهای نوین کتیرا در زیست‌پزشکی مرور شده است. به طور کلی، کتیرا دارای قدرت جذب آب، زیست‌تخریب‌پذیری و زیست‌سازگاری مناسب و پتانسیل بالایی برای اصلاح شیمیایی و فیزیکی است و به دلیل داشتن مونوساکاریدهای ویژه، قابلیت ویژه­ای برای استفاده در مهندسی بافت و رهایش ژن و دارو دارد. بنابراین به نظر می‌رسد در آینده به عنوان یک گزینه امیدوار کننده، کاربردهای کتیرا در زیست‌پزشکی گسترش یابد. در این راستا انجام پژوهش‌های بیش ­تر برای کسب دانش کافی از ویژگی‌های کتیرا و گسترش ویژگی­ ها و کاربردهای این صمغ ضروری است.البته باید توجه داشت برخی ویژگی‌ها مانند نسبت جزء محلول به نامحلول، ترکیب درصد مونوساکاریدها، درجه متوکسیلاسیون و استیلاسیون و در نتیجه رفتار رئولوژیکی، قدرت کاهش کشش سطحی، افزایش قوام، گستره واکنش و برهمکنش‌های شیمیایی، چگونگی برهمکنش با یون‌های فلزی و پروتئین‌ها و بسیاری دیگر از ویژگی‌های صمغ به­دست آمده از گونه‌های گوناگون متفاوت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


[1] Verbeken D., Dierckx S.,Dewettinck K., Exudate Gums: Occurrence, Production, and Applications. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 63: 10-21 (2003).

[2] Tavakol M., “Preparation of New In situ Forming (Injectable) Hydrogel Using Tragacanth Natural Gum for Cartilage Tissue Engineering, PhD Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, p. 17, (2014).

[3] Gavlighi H.A., Meyer A.S., Zaidel D.N.A., Mohammadifar M.A.,Mikkelsen J.D., Stabilization of Emulsions by Gum Tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) Correlates to the Galacturonic Acid Content and Methoxylation Degree of the Gum, Food Hydrocolloids, 31: 5-14 (2013).

[4]  Balaghi S., Mohammadifar M.A., Zargaraan A., Gavlighi H.A.,Mohammadi M., Compositional Analysis and Rheological Characterization of Gum Tragacanth Exudates from Six Species of Iranian Astragalus, Food Hydrocolloids, 25: 1775-1784 (2011).

[5] Mohammadifar M.A., Musavi S.M., Kiumarsi A.,Williams P.A., Solution Properties of Targacanthin (Water-Soluble Part of Gum Tragacanth Exudate from Astragalus Gossypinus), International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 38: 31-39 (2006).

[6] Tischer C.A., Iacomini M.,Gorin P.A.J., Structure of the Arabinogalactan from Gum Tragacanth (Astralagus Gummifer), Carbohydrate Research, 337: 1647-1655 (2002).

[7] Khajavi R., Pourgharbi S.H.M., Kiumarsi A.,Rashidi A., Gum Tragacanth Fibers from Astragalus Gummifer Species: Effects of Influencing Factors on Mechanical Properties of Fibers, Journal of Applied Sciences, 7: 2861-2865 (2007).

[8] Yokoyama A., Srinivasan K.R.,Fogler H.S., Stabilization Mechanism of Colloidal Suspensions by Gum Tragacanth: The Influence of pH on Stability, Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, 126: 141-149 (1988).

[9] Mohamadnia Z., Zohuriaan-Mehr M.J., Kabiri K.,Razavi-Nouri M., Tragacanth Gum-Graft-Polyacrylonitrile: Synthesis, Characterization and Hydrolysis. Journal of Polymer Research, 15: 173-180 (2008).

[10] Aspinall G.O.,Baillie J., Gum Tragacanth. Part ii.1 the Arabinogalactan, Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed),      : 1702-1714 (1963).

[11] Gralén N.,Kärrholm M., The Physicochemical Properties of Solutions of Gum Tragacanth, Journal of Colloid Science, 5: 21-36 (1950).

[12] Davidson R.L., "Handbook of Water-Soluble Gums and Resins", McGraw-Hill, New York, (1980).

[13] Zohuriaan M.J.,Shokrolahi F., Thermal Studies on Natural and Modified Gums, Polymer Testing, 23: 575-579 (2004).

[14] Karimi N.,Mohammadifar M.A., Role of Water Soluble and Water Swellable Fractions of Gum Tragacanth on Stability and Characteristic of Model Oil in Water Emulsion, Food Hydrocolloids, 37: 124-133 (2014).

[15] Farzi M., Emam-Djomeh Z.,Mohammadifar M.A., A Comparative Study on the Emulsifying Properties of Various Species of Gum Tragacanth, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 57: 76-82 (2013).

[16] Balaghi S., Mohammadifar M.A., Zargaraan A., Physicochemical and Rheological Characterization of Gum Tragacanth Exudates from Six Species of Iranian Astragalus, Food Biophysics, 5: 59-71 (2010).

[17] Alijani S., Balaghi S.,Mohammadifar M.A., Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Rheological Properties of Polysaccharides Exuded by A. Fluccosus and A. Gossypinus, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 49: 471-479 (2011).

[18] Farzi M., Saffari M.M., Emam-Djomeh Z.,Mohammadifar M.A., Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Rheological Properties and Particle Size of Gum Tragacanth Dispersions from Different Species, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46: 849-854 (2011).

[19] Censi R., Di Martino P., Vermonden T., Hennink W.E., Hydrogels for Protein Delivery in Tissue Engineering. Journal of Controlled Release, 161: 680-692 (2012).

[20] Tavakol M., Vasheghani-Farahani E., Soleimani M., Mohammadifar M.A., Hashemi-Najafabadi S., Hafizi M., Synthesis and Characterization of an Enzyme Mediated in Situ Forming Hydrogel Based on Gum Tragacanth for Biomedical Applications, Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 12: 15811-15817 (2013).

[21] Fattahi A., Petrini P., Munarin F., Shokoohinia Y., Golozar M.A., Varshosaz J.,Tanzi M.C., Polysaccharides Derived from Tragacanth as Biocompatible Polymers and Gels, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 129: 2092-2102 (2013).

[22] Haeri S.M.J., Sadeghi Y., Salehi M., Farahani R.M.,Mohsen N., Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Gum Tragacanth Hydrogel, Biologicals, 44: 123-128 (2016).

[23] Fayazzadeh E., Rahimpour S., Ahmadi S.M., Farzampour S., Anvari M.S., Boroumand M.A., Ahmadi S.H., Acceleration of Skin Wound Healing with Tragacanth (Astragalus) Preparation: An Experimental Pilot Study in Rats, Acta Medica Iranica, 52: 3-8 (2014).

[24] Patil P.R., Thorat R.U., Puranik P.K., Zinjan R.V.,Salve V.K., Natural Polymers Used in Modified Drug Delivery and Its Incompatibility: A Review, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 4: 83-92 (2013).

[25] Kaffashi B., Zandieh A.,Khadiv-Parsi P., Drug Release Study of Systems Containing the Tragacanth and Collagen Composite: Release Characterization and Viscoelastic Measurements, Macromolecular Symposia, 239: 120-129 (2006).

[26] Ali M.S., Singh S., Kumar A., Ansari M.T.,Pattnaik G., Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Phenytoin Sodium Using Natural Polymers, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2: 174-179 (2010).

[27] Gursoy A.,Cevik S., Sustained Release Properties of Alginate Microspheres and Tabletted Microspheres of Diclofenac Sodium, Journal of Microencapsulation, 17: 565-575 (2000).

[28] Siahi M., Barzegar-Jalali M., Monajjemzadeh F., Ghaffari F.,Azarmi S., Design and Evaluation of 1- and 3-Layer Matrices of Verapamil Hydrochloride for Sustaining Its Release, AAPS PharmSciTech, 6: 1626-1632 (2005).

[29] Anderson D.M.W.,Grant D.A.D., The Chemical Characterization of Some Astragalus Gum Exudates, Food Hydrocolloids, 2: 417-423 (1988).

[30] James S.P.,Smith F., The Chemistry of Gum Tragacanth. Part II. Derivatives of d- and l-Fucose, Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed),      : 746-748 (1945).

[31] James S.P.,Smith F., The Chemistry of Gum Tragacanth. Part I. Tragacanthic Acid, Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), : 739-746 (1945).

[32] James S.P.,Smith F., The Chemistry of Gum Tragacanth. Part III, Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed),      : 749-751 (1945).

[33] Dollimore D.,Karimian R., The Thermal Decomposition of Gum Tragacanth in Nitrogen, Thermochimica Acta, 51: 353-361 (1981).

[34] Chambers W.P., The Evaluation of Tragacanth by Means of the Apparent Viscosity, The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 1: 103-107 (1949).

[35] Brown E.B.,Crepea S.B., Allergy (asthma) to Ingested Gum Tragacanth. A Case Refort, Journal of Allergy, 18: 214-215 (1947).

[36] Strobel S., Ferguson A.,Anderson D.M.W., Immunogenicity, Immunological Cross Reactivity and Non-Specific Irritant Properties of the Exudate Gums, Arabic, Karaya and Tragacanth, Food Additives and Contaminants, 3: 47-56 (1986).

[37] Hagiwara A., Tanaka H., Tiwawech D., Shirai T.,Ito N., Oral Toxicity Study of Tragacanth Gum in B6C3F1 Mice: Development of Squamous-Cell Hyperplasia in the Forestomach and Its Reversibility, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 34: 207-218 (1991).

[38] Hagiwara A., Boonyaphiphat P., Kawabe M., Naito H., Shirai T.,Ito N., Lack of Carcinogenicity of Tragacanth Gum in B6C3F1 Mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 30: 673-679 (1992).

[39] Smee D.F., Sidwell R.W., Hoffman J.H., Huggins J.W., Kende M.,Verbiscar A.J., Antiviral Activities of Tragacanthin Polysaccharides on Punta Toro Virus Infections in Mice, Chemotherapy, 42: 286-293 (1996).

[40] Dobos P., Use of Gum Tragacanth Overlay, Applied at Room Temperature, in the Plaque Assay of Fish and Other Animal Viruses, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 3: 373-375 (1976).

[41] Roe E.M., Smyth H.,Flahavan E., Action of Tumor-Inhibitory Gum Tragacanth on Potassium Permeability of Ascites Tumor Cells and Partial Characterization of the Cytotoxic Component, Cancer Research, 32: 2067-2074 (1972).

[42] Roe E.M.F., Growth Inhibition of Mouse Ascites Tumour Cells by Powdered Tragacanth (Tragacanthæ pulvis, B.P.). Nature, 184: 1891-1892 (1959).

[43] Torres M.D., Moreira R., Chenlo F.,Vázquez M.J., Water Adsorption Isotherms of Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Guar, Locust Bean, Tragacanth and Xanthan Gums, Carbohydrate Polymers, 89: 592-598 (2012).

[44] Teimouri S., Abbasi S.,Sheikh N., Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Some Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Persian Gum and Gum Tragacanth, Food Hydrocolloids, 59: 9-16 (2016).

[45] Iqbal Z., Khan R., Nasir F., Khan J.A., Rashid A., Khan A.,Khan A., Preparation and Invitro Invivo Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Diclofenac Sodium Tablets Using PVP-K90 and Natural Gums, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 24: 435-493 (2011).

[46] Rasul A., Iqbal M., Murtaza G., Waqas M.K., Hanif M., Khan S.A.,Bhatti N.S.,Design, Development and in-Vitro Evaluation of Metoprolol Tartrate Tablets Containing Xanthan-Tragacanth, Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research, 67: 517-522 (2010).

[47] Nakano M.,Ogata A., Examination of Natural Gums as Matrices for Sustained Release of Theophylline, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 32: 782-785 (1984).

[48] Dehghan-Niri M., Tavakol M., Vasheghani-Farahani E.,Ganji F., Drug Release From Enzyme-Mediated in Situ-Forming Hydrogel Based on Gum Tragacanth–Tyramine Conjugate,. Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 29: 1343-1350 (2015).

[49] Tavakol M., Vasheghani-Farahani E., Mohammadifar M.A., Soleimani M., Hashemi-Najafabadi S., Synthesis and Characterization of an in Situ Forming Hydrogel Using Tyramine Conjugated High Methoxyl Gum Tragacanth, Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 30: 1016-1025 (2016).

[50] Tavakol M., Dehshiri S.,Vasheghani-Farahani E., Electron Beam Irradiation Crosslinked Hydrogels Based on Tyramine Conjugated Gum Tragacanth, Carbohydrate Polymers, 152: 504-509 (2016).

[51] Singh B., Varshney L., Francis S.,Rajneesh, Designing Tragacanth Gum Based Sterile Hydrogel by Radiation Method for Use in Drug Delivery and Wound Dressing applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 88: 586-602 (2016).

[52] Kiani A., Asempour H., Hydrogel Membranes Based on Gum Tragacanth with Tunable Structures and Properties. II. Comprehensive Characterization of the Swelling Behavior, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 126: 1477-1484 (2012).

[53] Kiani A., Shahbazi M., Asempour H., Hydrogel Membranes Based on Gum Tragacanth with Tunable Structure and Properties. I. Preparation Method Using Taguchi Experimental Design, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 124: 99-108 (2012).

[54] Otady M., Vaziri A., Seifkordi A.A.,Kheirolomoom A., Gum Tragacanth Gels as a New Supporting Matrix for Immobilization of Whole-Cell, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 24: 1-7 (2005).

[55] Sadeghi S., Rad F.A., Moghaddam A.Z., A highly Selective Sorbent for Removal of Cr(VI) From Aqueous Solutions Based on Fe3O4/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Grafted Tragacanth Gum Nanocomposite: Optimization by Experimental Design, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 45: 136-145 (2014).

[56] Masoumi A.,Ghaemy M., Removal of Metal Ions From Water Using Nanohydrogel Tragacanth Gum-g-polyamidoxime: Isotherm and Kinetic Study, Carbohydrate Polymers, 108: 206-215 (2014).

[57] Alchihab M., Destain J., Aguedo M., Wathelet J.P.,Thonart P., The Utilization of Gum Tragacanth to Improve the Growth of Rhodotorula Aurantiaca and the Production of γ-Decalactone in Large Scale, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162: 233-241 (2010).

[58] Saruchi, Kaith B.S., Jindal R., Kumar V., Bhatti M.S., Optimal Response Surface Design of Gum Tragacanth-Based poly[(Acrylic Acid)-co-acrylamide] IPN Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of the Antihypertensive Drug Losartan Potassium, RSC Advances, 4: 39822-39829 (2014).

[59] Saruchi, Kaith B.S., Jindal R.,Kapur G.S., Synthesis of Gum Tragacanth and Acrylic Acid Based Hydrogel: Its Evaluation for Controlled Release of Antiulcerative Drug Pantoprazole Sodium, Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 2: 110-117 (2014).

[60] Hemmati K.,Ghaemy M., Synthesis of New Thermo/pH Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems Based on Tragacanth Gum Polysaccharide, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 87: 415-425 (2016).

[61] Hemmati K., Masoumi A.,Ghaemy M., pH Responsive Tragacanth Gum and Poly(methyl Methacrylate-co-maleic anhydride)-g-poly(caprolactone) Conetwork Microgel for in Vitro Quercetin Release, Polymer, 59: 49-56 (2015).

[62] Ranjbar-Mohammadi M., Bahrami S.H.,Joghataei M.T., Fabrication of Novel Nanofiber Scaffolds From Gum Tragacanth/poly(vinyl alcohol) for Wound Dressing Application:
In Vitro Evaluation and Antibacterial Propertie,
. Materials Science and Engineering C, 33: 4935-4943 (2013).

[63] Ranjbar-Mohammadi M.,Bahrami S.H., Electrospun Curcumin Loaded Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Gum Tragacanth Nanofibers for Biomedical Application, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 84: 448-456 (2016).

[64] Ranjbar-Mohammadi M., Zamani M., Prabhakaran M.P., Bahrami S.H.,Ramakrishna S., Electrospinning of PLGA/Gum Tragacanth Nanofibers Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride for Periodontal Regeneration, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 58: 521-531 (2016).

[65] Ranjbar-Mohammadi M., Prabhakaran M.P., Bahrami S.H.,Ramakrishna S., Gum Tragacanth/poly(l-lactic acid) Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Application in Regeneration of Peripheral Nerve Damage, Carbohydrate Polymers, 140: 104-112 (2016).

[66] Ranjbar-Mohammadi M.,Bahrami S.H., Development of Nanofibrous Scaffolds Containing Gum Tragacanth/poly(ε-caprolactone) for Application as Skin Scaffolds, Materials Science and Engineering C, 48: 71-79 (2015).

[67] Mohammadi M.R., Rabbani S., Bahrami S.H., Joghataei M.T.,Moayer F., Antibacterial Performance and in Vivo Diabetic Wound Healing of Curcumin Loaded Gum Tragacanth/Poly(ε-caprolactone) Electrospun Nanofibers, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 69: 1183-1191 (2016).

[68] Khajavi R., Hajmalek M., Ashtiyani F.S., Toliat T., Sattari M., Mirjalili M., Anti Bacterial Scaffolds Based on Gum Tragacanth for Wound Caring Under Moist Conditions, Medical Sciences, 23: 206-211 (2013).

[69] Moghbel A., Hemmati A.A., Agheli H., Rashidi I.,Amraee K., The Effect of Tragacanth Mucilage on the Healing of Full-Thickness Wound in Rabbit, Archives of Iranian Medicine, 8: 257-262 (2005).

[70] Hasandokht Firooz M., Mohammadifar M.A.,Haratian P., Self-Assembly of β-Lactoglobulin and the Soluble Fraction of Gum Tragacanth in Aqueous Medium, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 50: 925-931 (2012).

[71] Kora A.J.,Arunachalam J., Green Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles by Gum Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer): A Dual Functional Reductant and Stabilizer. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2012: 8-16 (2012).

[72] Ghorbani Gorji S., Ghorbani Gorji E., Mohammadifar M.A., Zargaraan A., Complexation of Sodium Caseinate with Gum Tragacanth: Effect of Various Species and Rheology of Coacervates, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 67: 503-511 (2014).

[73] Gorji S.G., Gorji E.G., Mohammadifar M.A., Characterisation of Gum Tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus)/Sodium Caseinate Complex Coacervation as a Function of pH in an Aqueous Medium, Food Hydrocolloids, 34: 161-168 (2014).

[74] Hatami M., Nejatian M., Mohammadifar M.A.,Pourmand H., Milk Protein–Gum Tragacanth Mixed Gels: Effect of Heat-Treatment Sequence, Carbohydrate Polymers, 101: 1068-1073 (2014).

[75] Jain A., Thakur D., Ghoshal G., Katare O.P., Shivhare U.S., Characterization of Microcapsulated β-Carotene Formed by Complex Coacervation Using Casein and Gum Tragacanth, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 87: 101-113 (2016).

[76] Fattahi A., Sadrjavadi K., Golozar M.A., Varshosaz J., Fathi M.-H., Mirmohammad-Sadeghi H., Preparation and Characterization of Oligochitosan–Tragacanth Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier, Carbohydrate Polymers, 97: 277-283 (2013).

[77] Nayeri H., Fattahi A., Iranpoor-mobarakeh M.,Nori P., Stabilization of Lactoperoxidase by Tragacanth-Chitosan Nano Biopolymer, International Journal of Biosciences, 6: 418-426 (2015).

[78] Ghayempour S.,Montazer M., Ultrasound Irradiation Based in-Situ Synthesis of Star-Like Tragacanth Gum/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34: 458-465  (2017).

[79] Ghayempour S., Montazer M.,Mahmoudi Rad M., Tragacanth Gum Biopolymer as Reducing and Stabilizing Agent in Biosonosynthesis of Urchin-like ZnO Nanorod Arrays: A Low Cytotoxic Photocatalyst with Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties, Carbohydrate Polymers, 136: 232-241 (2016).

[80] Azarikia F.,Abbasi S., On the Stabilization Mechanism of Doogh (Iranian yoghurt drink) by Gum Tragacanth, Food Hydrocolloids, 24: 358-363 (2010).

[81] Gorji E.G., Mohammadifar M.A.,Ezzatpanah H., Influence of Gum Tragacanth, Astragalus Gossypinus, Addition on Stability of Nonfat Doogh, an Iranian Fermented Milk Drink, International Journal of Dairy Technology, 64: 262-268 (2011).

[82] Omidbakhsh amiri E., Nayebzadeh K.,Mohammadifar M.A., Comparative Studies of Xanthan, Guar and Tragacanth Gums on Stability and Rheological Properties of Fresh and Stored Ketchup. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52: 7123-7132 (2015).

[83] Keshtkaran M., Mohammadifar M.A., Asadi G.H., Nejad R.A.,Balaghi S., Effect of Gum Tragacanth on Rheological and Physical Properties of a Flavored Milk Drink Made with Date Syrup, Journal of Dairy Science, 96: 4794-4803 (2013).

[84] Abdolmaleki K., Mohammadifar M.A., Mohammadi R., Fadavi G.,Meybodi N.M., The Effect of pH and Salt on the Stability and Physicochemical Properties of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Prepared with Gum Tragacanth, Carbohydrate Polymers, 140: 342-348 (2016).

[85] Farzi M., Yarmand M.S., Safari M., Emam-Djomeh Z.,Mohammadifar M.A., Gum Tragacanth Dispersions: Particle Size and Rheological Properties Affected by High-Shear Homogenization, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 79: 433-439 (2015).

[86] Nejatian M., Hatami M.,Mohammadifar M.A., Effect of Gum Tragacanth Exuded by Three Iranian Astragalus on Mixed Milk Protein System During Acid Gelation, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 53: 168-176 (2013).

[87] Azarikia F.,Abbasi S., Efficacy of Whey Protein–Tragacanth on Stabilization of Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Comparison of Mixed and Layer by Layer Methods, Food Hydrocolloids, 59: 26-34 (2016).

[88] Kurt A., Cengiz A.,Kahyaoglu T., The Effect of Gum Tragacanth on the Rheological Properties of Salep Based Ice Cream Mix, Carbohydrate Polymers, 143: 116-123 (2016).

[89] López-Castejón M.L., Bengoechea C., García-Morales M.,Martínez I., Influence of Tragacanth Gum in Egg White Based Bioplastics: Thermomechanical and Water Uptake Properties, Carbohydrate Polymers, 152: 62-69 (2016).

[90] Mostafavi F.S., Kadkhodaee R., Emadzadeh B.,Koocheki A., Preparation and Characterization of Tragacanth–Locust Bean Gum Edible Blend Films, Carbohydrate Polymers, 139: 20-27 (2016).

[91] López-Castejón M.L., Bengoechea C., García-Morales M.,Martínez I., Effect of Plasticizer and Storage Conditions on Thermomechanical Properties of Albumen/Tragacanth Based Bioplastics, Food and Bioproducts Processing, 95: 264-271 (2015).

[92] Saruchi, Kaith B.S., Jindal R.,Kapur G.S., Enzyme-Based Green Approach for the Synthesis of Gum Tragacanth and Acrylic Acid Cross-Linked Hydrogel: Its Utilization in Controlled Fertilizer Release and Enhancement of Water-Holding Capacity of Soil, Iranian Polymer Journal, 22: 561-570 (2013).

[93] Khoylou F.,Naimian F., Radiation Synthesis of Superabsorbent Polyethylene Oxide/Tragacanth Hydrogel, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 78: 195-198 (2009).

[94] Mohammadifar M.A., Musavi S.M.,Williams P.A., Study of Complex Coacervation Between β-Lactoglobulin and Tragacanthin (Soluble Part of Gum Tragacanth). Milchwissenschaft, 62: 389-392 (2007).

[95] Sadat Hosseini M., Hemmati K.,Ghaemy M., Synthesis of Nanohydrogels Based on Tragacanth Gum Biopolymer and Investigation of Swelling and Drug Delivery, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 82: 806-815 (2016).