Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Applications of Titania/Titanate Nanotubes

Document Type : Review Article


Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P. O. Box 18754-4163 Tehran, I.R. IRAN


The synthesis methods for titania/ titanate nanotubes can be split into two categories: template and non-templated procedures. The templates can be classified into positive and negative (include: oregano gelator, macroporous alumina membranes, carbon nanotubes, surfactant) that synthesized nanotubes with diameters > 50 nm. The non-templating methods include alkaline hydrothermal, anodization of titanium in fluoride bathing, seeded growth. The key to developing and exploiting new nanostructured materials lies in an improved knowledge of how synthesis conditions affect properties of nanostructured materials in order to tailor materials to specific needs, In particular, a knowledge of the mechanism of nanostructure formation is very important. In this paper, synthesis methods, microstructure, mechanism of formation and growth and their advantages and disadvantages for these nanotube reported by researchers are reviewed. The nanotube morphology, the highly surface area, and pore volume, render titania/titanate nanotubes promoting materials for many applications in different fields which include energy conversion and storage, catalysis, electro catalysis, photo catalysis, magnetic materials, drug delivery, bio-applications, composites, surface finishing, tribological coatings.


Main Subjects

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