Phase Equilibrium of Ternary System Carbon Dioxide+ Toluene + Naphthalene on GAS Process

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


In the present research, the equilibrium data of ternary systems, carbon dioxide- toluene- naphthalene is determined by using a high-pressure apparatus. Mentioned data is measured between 298.15 K and 308.15 K and pressure at 9.6 to 75.6 bar. In each experiment, equilibrium solubilities of naphthalene in toluene decrease by increasing the pressure due to adding the carbon dioxide as the anti-solvent. Also, the obtained experimental data have correlated by the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of states along with Van der Waals 1 and 2 mixing rules.The adjustable parameters of mentioned models are obtained using the experimental data and reported along with average absolute relative deviation of each model. The results show that SRK equation of state with vdW2 mixing rule (AARD = 11.75 %) has less deviation than SRK-vdW1 (AARD =14.41 %) and optimum operational condition for production of fine particles (over than 90%) in the GAS process has been suggested.


Main Subjects

[1] Chattopadhyay P., Gupta R. B., Production of Griseofulvin Nanoparticles Using Supercritical CO2 as Antisolvent with Enhanced Mass Transfer, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40:3530-3539 (2001).
[2] Cocero M.J., Ferrero S., Crystallization of β-carotene by a GAS Process in Batch: Effect of Operating Conditions, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 22: 237-245 (2002).
[3] Kalogiannis C.G., Eleni P., Panayiotou C.G., Production of Amoxicillin Microparticles by Supercritical Antisolvent Precipitation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44: 9339-9346 (2005).
[5] Dixon D.J., Johnston K.P., Molecular Thermodynamics of Solubilities in Gas Antisolvent Crystallization, AIChE journal., 37(10): 1441-1449 (1991).
[6] Breure B., Kordikowski A., Wilmes B., Peters C.J., Measurements of the Phase Behavior of Ternary Systems of Interest to the GAS Process: III. The System CO2+ Toluene + Naphthalene, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 76: 10-16 (2013).
[7] Kikic I., De Zordi N., Moneghini M., Solinas D., Solubility Estimation of Drugs in Ternary Systems of Interest for the Antisolvent Precipitation Processes, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 55: 616-622 (2010).
[8] Courtney A., Stephen O., Montgomery E., Gupta R.B., Formation of Itraconazole/ L-Malic Acid Cocrystals by Gas Antisolvent Cocrystallization, Journal of powder thechnology, 236: 122-131 (2013).
[9] Liu Z., Wang J., Song L., Yang G., Han B., Study on the Phase Behavior of Cholesterol-Acetone- CO2 System and Recrystallization of Cholesterol by Antisolvent CO2, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 24: 1-6 (2002).
[10] Soave. G., Equilibrium Constants From a Modified Redlich- Kwong Equation of State, Chem. Eng. Sci., 27:1197-1203 (1972).
[11] Prausnitz J.M., Rüdiger N.L., Gomes de Azevedo E., "Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria", 3 rd. ed, Prentice-Hall, (1999).
[12] Green D.W., Perry’s  R. H.  Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th Edition, Nc Graw-hill, New York, USA, (2008).
[14] De la Fuente J. C., Shariati A. and Peters C.J., On the Selection of Optimum Thermodynamic Conditions for the GAS Process, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 32: 55-61 (2004).