Investigation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Effects in Sunscreens Formulations

Document Type : Research Article


Payam Noor University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


The effect of three commercial types of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with primary particle sizes of 20 to 50 nm have been used for different sunscreens formulations. The efficiency of these sunscreens formulations, such as Sun Protection Factor (SPF), UVAPF and critical wavelength (λc) were tested. Oil/water creams with 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations of each type of TiO2 were prepared, and SPF, UVAPF and λc were measured using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Because the samples have been aggregate and made the agglomerations, the milling and hemogenation methods have been used for decrease size of particles. In vitro analysis demonstrated that submicron-sized TiO2 cream had a lower SPF value than nanosized TiO2 formulations of the same concentration. In vivo experiments confirmed this result, and a strong correlation between in vitro and in vivo measurements was observed. Furthermore, the SPF values of nanosized TiO2 sunscreen were concentration-dependent in the range of 5% to 20%. Scanning electron microscopy results indicate that the higher SPF of nanosized TiO2 formulations may be due to the formation of multilayer agglomerates by small particles at nano-scales, leading to a reduced void space between particles and a more efficient barrier to protect skin from sunlight.

Main Subjects

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