Fabrication, Development, and Simulation of All-vanadium Redox Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Storage

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) with large energy storage capability are one of the most important electrochemical technologies in the world. The specific design of these batteries has made it possible to increase the storage capacity to very high values. Hence, this technology is referred to as the electricity supplier of cities in the not too distant future. In this article, fabrication, development, and the simulation of VRFBs in order to take an important step towards achieving technical knowledge of this promising storage technology, have been considered. In this regard, first, the designed cell structure was introduced and the method of material selection and initial preparation for the battery startup were described. In addition, the governing equations of the system were presented. Then, experimental and numerical investigation of the system performance was followed by simulation validation. Evaluation and analysis of cyclic performance, system efficiency, effect of current density, electrolyte concentration, pressure distribution and electrolyte velocity distribution were among other items of interest in the present work. The model predictions were validated with an average error of 4.92% against experimental data of charge and discharge cycles at current densities of 40 and 60 mA/cm2. The results obtained from cyclic performance of the battery clearly indicate that the average coulombic efficiencies of the system at current densities of 40, 50, and 60 mA/cm2 are 90.25%, 92.45%, and 94.35%, respectively. Moreover, the storage capacity of 133 mA.h with a pressure drop of 2400 Pa were obtained for the electrolyte concentration of 1 mol/L and the volumetric flow rate of 40 mL/min, which indicates the proper hydrodynamic and kinetic performance of the designed system.