Using Surface Response Method and Central Composite Design in Optimizing Sugar Production from the Pruning Poplar Tree Waste in Bioethanol Process by Dilute Acid Hydrolysis

Document Type : Research Article


Chemical Engineering Group, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, I.R. IRAN


Limited fossil fuel resources and increasing need for fuel, air pollution and the need for green fuels have led to bioethanol being considered as a renewable energy source. This fuel is mainly produced from plants and crops. In order to determine the effective parameters on the production of fermentable sugar, dilute acid hydrolysis of Poplar waste in the bioethanol process has been used as a surface response method and central composite design. The wood was first washed with distilled water and dried in air and sunlight, ground by a vibrating disc grinder up to 50 μm and stored in zipped plastics in room air and then hydrolyzed at certain temperatures in an acidic solution in an autoclave. To investigate the effect of the three main variables of acid concentration, temperature, and time on the fermentable sugar produced, temperature at 3 levels of 140, 160, and 180 ° C acid concentration at 3 levels of 0.5,1, and 1.5% and time in 3 levels of 5, 10, and 15 min were selected. By using Molisch, Barford, and Resorcinol quality tests, the major constituents of the refined product were identified as glucose. Glucose concentration was measured using the line anion method and modeled by a two-squared equation. The results showed that in the defined range glucose production was affected by the second power of temperature and then the concentration of acid and to a small extent is affected by time. At high temperatures and concentrations of acid and medium time, most of the glucose products can be produced.


Main Subjects

[1] Balat M., Balat H., Cahide O.Z., Progress in Bioethanol Processing, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33: 551-573 (2008).
[2] Rowan F., Heather A., Danielle A., Brett G., Stephen A., Allen Torbert H., Sicher R., Ziska L., Kudzu: A New Source of Carbohydrate for Bioethanol Production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 33(1): 57–61 (2009).
[3] Kumar M.S., Behera S., Ranjan M., Ramesh C.S., Bioethanol Production from Mahula Flowers by Solid-State Fermentation, Applied Energy, 86(5): 640–644 (2009).
[4] Marcos M., García-Cubero M. T., González-Benito G., Coca M., Bolado S., Lucas C., Improvement of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Steam-Exploded Wheat Straw by Simultaneous Glucose and Xylose Liberation, Biochem. Eng., 27(4): 499–5090 (2013).
[7] Ruiz E., Romero I., Moya M., Cara C., Vidal J., D., Castro E., Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Sunflower Stalks for Sugar Production, Bioresource Technology, 140: 292-298 (2013).
[8] Galbe M., Zacchi G., A Review of the Production of Ethanol from Softwood, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 59(6): 618-628 (2002).
[9] Demirbas A., Bioethanol from Cellulosic Materials: A Renewable Motor Fuel from Biomass, Energy Sources, 27(4): 327-337 (2005).
[10] Arasteh A., Ardgmand M., Fanaei M., Safekordi A., Kinetic Modeling of Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis of Walnut Green Skin, African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(4): 878-887 (2012).
[11] Iranmahboob J., Nadim F, Monemi S., Optimizing Acid-Hydrolysis: a Critical Step for Production of Ethanol from Mixed Wood Chips, Biomass and Bioenergy, 22(5): 401-404 (2002).
[12] Chandel A.K., Chan ES., Rudravaram R., Lakshmi Narasu M., Venkateswar L., Ravindra P., Bioconversion of Pentose Sugars Into Ethanol: A Review and Future Directions, Biotechnology andMolecular Biology Review, 2(1): 14-32 (2007).
[13] Zhang X., Yu H., Huang H., Liu Y., Evaluation of Biological Pretreatment with White Rot Fungi for the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo Culms, InternationalBiodeterioration & Biodegradation, 60(3): 159-164 (2007).
[14] Rajeev K.S., Reeta R., Mathew G., Pandey A., Cellulose Production Using Biomass Feed Stock and its Application In Lignocelluloses Saccharification for Bio-Ethanol Production, Renewable Energy, 34(2): 421-424 (2009).
[15] Arasteh A., Hemmati H., Using Response Surface Method for Optimizing Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Walnut Green Skin, Journal of Applied Environmentaland Biological Sciences, 4(11): 209-2012 (2015).
[16] Talebpour Z., Ghassempour A., Abbaci M., Aboul-Enein H.Y., Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Determination of Glycyrrhizin in Menthazin Herbal Drug by Experimental Design Methodology, Chromatographia, 70: 191–197 (2009).
[17] Bezerra M., Santelli R., Oliveira E., Leonardo S., Response Surface Methodology (RSM) as a Tool for Optimization in Analytical Chemistry, Talanta, 76: 965-977 (2008).
[18] Switzar L., Giera M., Lingeman H., Irth H., Niessen W.M.A., Protein digestion Optimization for Characterization of Drug–Protein Adducts Using Response Surface ModelingJ. Chromatogr., 1218: 1715–1723 (2011).
[20] Dussán K. J., Silva D. V.,  Moares J. C., Arruda P.V., Felipe G. A., Dilute-acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Glucose from Sugarcane Bagasse, Chemical Engineering Transaction, 38: 433-440 (2014).
[22] Barfoed C., Über die Nachweisung des Traubenzuckers Neben Dextrin und Verwandten Körpern Fresenius., Zeitschrift Für Analytische Chemie., 12(1): 27-33 (1873).
[23] Abramoff P. Robert T., "An Experimental Approach to Biology, An Experimental Approach to Biology", WH Freeman & Company, San Francisco., (1966).
[24] Baldwin E., Bell D.J., "Cole's Practical Physiological Chemistry", Heffer and Sons, Cambridge, (1955).
[25] Albrecht S. Klüfers P., The Structural Chemistry of Text-Book Species: the Tartrato-Cuprates in Fehling's Solution, Z Anorg Allg Chem, 639: 280-284 (2013).
[27] Castro E., Díaz M., Cara C., Ruiz E., Romero I., Moya M., Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Rapeseed Straw for Fermentable Sugar Generation, Bioresource Technology, 102: 1270-1276 (2011).
[28] Campo D., Alegrıa I., Zazpe M., Echeverrıa M., Echeverrıa I., Diluted Acid Hydrolysis Pretreatment of Agri-Food Wastes for Bioethanol Production, Industrial Crops and Products, 24: 214–221 (2006).