Investigation Extraction and Separation Thorium by Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method

Document Type : Research Article


Nuclear Science And Technology Research Institute, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


In the present study, a simple method as name dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the thorium extraction. In this extraction method, acetone as a disperser solvent and chlorobenzene as an extraction solvent was used. Extraction and separation of thorium with complexing agent cyanex 272 in an acidic environment were performed. Some of the effective parameters on the extraction of thorium such as type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents and concentration of ligand and type and concentration of acid were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-5000 µg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) > 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 µg/L. Repeatability for five replicate measurements in the concentration level of 20.0 µg/L was 6.5% and extraction recovery 78% was obtained.


Main Subjects

[2] Dekoussar, V., Dyck, G.R., Galperin, A., Ganguly, C., Todosow, M., Yamawaki, M., International Atomic Energy Agency, “Thorium Fuel Cycles: Potential Benefits and Challenges”, Vienna, Australia 5-20 (2005).
[3] Jayaram K., “Thorium-based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspectives”, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, (1987).
[4] Habashi F., “Textbook of Hydrometallurgy”, Department of Mining and Metallurgy, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada 430-440 (1993).
[5] Cathbert F.L., “Thorium Production Technology”, National Lead Company of Ohio, United State of America, 104-120 (1958).
[6] Habashi F., “Handbook of Extractive Hydrometallurgy”, 1660-1665 (1997).
[7] El-Dessouky S.I., El-Hefny N.E., Daoud J.A., Aly H.F., Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Uranium, Neodymium and Chromium from Thiocyanate Medium by Cyanex 921, Arab. J. Nucl. Sci. Appl., 36: 17-26 (2003).
[10] Tong H., Wang Y., Liao W., Li D., Synergistic Extraction of Ce(IV) and Th(IV) with  Mixtures of Cyanex 923 and Organophosphorus Acids in Sulfuric Acid Media, Sep. Purif. Technol. 118: 487-491 (2013).
[12] Ritcey G.M., Lucas B.H., Co-Extraction and Separate Recovery of Uranium and Thorium from Acid Solution, U.S. Patent 33835213 (1974).
[13] Wang L., Yu Y., Huang X., Hu F., Dong J., Yan L., Long Z., Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Thorium Extraction from Sulfuric Acid Medium by HEH(EHP), Hydrometallurgy, 150: 167-172 (2014).
[15] Bohlmann E.G., Ridge O., Separation of Thorium from Uranium by Extraction, U.S. Patent 2897046 (1959).
[16] Michaud S., Miguirditchian M., Deblonde G., Dinh B., Heres X., Andreoletti G., Modelling of Thorium Extraction by TBP, Procedia Chem., 7: 251-257 (2012).
[17] Amine Didi M., Villemin D., Abderrahim O., Azzouz A., Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Thorium (IV) by Fatty Acids: A Comparative Study, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 299: 1191-1198 (2014).
[18] Ali A.M.I., El-Nadi Y.A., Daoud J.A., Aly H.F., Recovery of Thorium (IV) from Leached Monazite Solutions using Counter-Current Extraction, Int. J. Miner. Process., 81: 217-223 (2007).
[19] Sabot J.L., Leveque A., Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Rare Earth/Uranium/Thorium Values, U.S. Patent 4461748 (1984).
[24] Rezaee M., Assadi Y., Milani Hosseini M.R., Aghaee E.,  Ahmadi F., Berijani S., Determination of Organic Compounds in Water using Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction, J. Chromatogr A, 1116: 1-9 (2006).
[26] Rezaee M., Yamini Y., Faraji M., Evolution of Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Method, J. Chromatogr A, 1217: 2342-2357 (2010).
[30] Zebroski E.L., Alter H.W., Heumann F.K.,  Thorium Complexes with Chloride, Fluoride, Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulfate, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 73: 5646-5650 (1951).
[31] Hyde E.K., “The Radiochemistry of Thorium. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory”, University of California, Berkeley, CA (1960).