Investigation of Low Concentrations R22 on Methane Hydrate Formation Kinetics

Document Type : Research Note


1 School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, I.R. IRAN

2 Centre for Gas Hydrate Research, Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, SCOTLAND


In this work the effect of R22 on methane hydrate formation rate is investigated. R22 and methane are in gas phase. With adding R22 in gas phase the methane hydrate formation rate is increased. Experiments were done at R22 concentrations of 0, 162, 5550, 16000 and 29500 ppm. The results show the initial rate of methane hydrate formation is increased between 36% - 64 % and the required time for reaching to the equilibrium pressure is decreased with increasing the concentration of R22. Also induction time is decreased in due to encaging R22 in hydrate phase, because with encaging R22 in hydrate phase the equilibrium pressure is decreased and driving force for methane hydrate formation is enhanced.


Main Subjects

 [1] Sloan E.D., "Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases", 3 rd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York, (2008).
[2] کرم الدین، مریم؛ ورامینیان، فرشاد؛ مقایسه کارایی قانون‏های اختلاط در پیش بینی تعادل فازی هیدرات گازی با استفاده از معادله حالت SW، نشریه شیمی و مهندسی شیمی ایران، (4)29، ص. 77 (1389).
[3] ملک علایی، مهدی؛ ورامینیان، فرشاد؛ تحلیل پایداری هیدرات گازی و محاسبه تبخیر ناگهانی چند جزیی ـ چند فازی، نشریه شیمی و مهندسی شیمی ایران، (1)28، ص. 139 (1388).
[4] Makogon Y.F., "Hydrates of Hydrocarbons", Pennwell Publishing Co. Oklahoma, (1997).
[5] Carroll J., “Natural Gas Hydrate A Guide for Engineers", 1th ed., Elsevier Science and Technology Books, New York, (2002).
[6] Okutani K., Kuwabara Y., Mori Y.H., Surfactant Effects on Hydrateformation in an Unstirred Gas/Liquid System: An Experimental Study Using Methane Andsodium Alkyl Sulfates, Chemical Engineering Science, 63, p. 183 (2008).
[7] Profio P.Di, Arca S., Germani R., Savelli G., “Surfactant Promoting Effects on Clathratehydrate Formation: Are Micelles Really Involved?, Chemical Engineering Science, 60, p. 4141 (2005).
[8] Roosta H., “The Effect of Additives on S I and S II Hydrate Formation Kinetic”, MS. Thesis, Semnan University, (2012).
[9] Zhang C.S., Fan S.S., Liang D.Q., Guo K.H., Effect of Additives on Formation of Natural Gas Hydrate, Fuel, 83, p. 2115 (2004).
[10] Watanabe K., Imai S., Mori Y.H., Surfactant Effects on Hydrateformation in an Unstirred Gas/Liquid System: An Experimental Study Using HFC-32 Andsodium Dodecyl Sulfate, Chemical Engineering Science 60, p. 4846 (2005).
[11] Mooijer-van den Heuvel M.M., Witteman R., Peters C.J., Phase Behaviour of Gas Hydratesof Carbon Dioxide in the Presence of Tetrahydropyran, Cyclobutanone, Cyclohexane Andmethylcyclohexane, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 182, p. 97 (2001).
[12] Ganji H., Manteghian M., Rahimi Mofrad H., Effect of Mixed Compounds on Methane Hydrate Formation and Dissociation Rates and Storage Capacity, Fuel Processing Technology, 88, p. 891 (2007).
[13] Max M.D., "Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate", MDS Research & Hydrate Energy International. St. Petersburg, FL, U.S.A., Springer, (2003).
[14] Mafakheri K., "An Experimental Study on Thermodynamics and Formation Kinetics of Hydrates of Refrigerants", MS Thesis, Semnan University, (2010).
[15] Parsamehr S., "The Use of Tracer to Predict Formation of the Gas Hydrate in Pipelines", MS Thesis, Semnan University, (2012).