Hydrodynamic Characterization of Three-Phase Fluidized-Beds Using Vibration Signature Analysis

Document Type : Research Article


1 Multiphase Systems Research Lab., Oil and Gas Processing Centre of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563 Tehran,, I.R. IRAN

2 Modal Lab. School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


Vibration fluctuations of a three-phase gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed, as a novel method of hydrodynamic characterization of such a complex system, were introduced and investigated. The studied three-phase fluidized-bed consisted of air, water, and sand particles as three operating phases, in which, water was continuous, and air and sand particles were dispersed phases, respectively. Such fluidized-beds, in which, the gas and liquid are upward co-current flows, and solid is present from the beginning of the process, are known as the most common industrial three-phase fluidized-beds. Using reliable, yet non-intrusive methods to study the hydrodynamics of such systems is vital. In this paper, time-series obtained from vibration fluctuations signals at a height of 13.5 cm (L/D = 1.5) above the gas-liquid distributor were analyzed at time domain (statistical methods), as a usual method. Also, average cycle frequency, as a novel method to characterize such systems, was introduced. It was concluded that standard deviation of bed-shell vibration fluctuations is a powerful representative of bed overall regime change, and the change of the slope of kurtosis is occurring near minimum fluidization. Moreover, minimum liquid-fluidization velocity was acquired using average cycle frequency of vibration signals with an acceptable relative error. Operating condition, resulted by vibration analysis, at which the bed-regime change occurred, was in agreement with experimental observations, and the results of minimum fluidization were consistent with the most accurate relations in the literature. Finally, vibration signature analysis, as a fully-non-invasive method which doesn’t interfere with internal hydrodynamics of the bed, is introduced to hydrodynamic characterization of three-phase fluidized beds. Outline of present research can be used in industrial reactors operated at sever conditions of temperature and/or pressure successfully.


Main Subjects

[1] Fan L.S., “Gas-liquid-solid Fluidization Engineering,” In Butterworth Series in Chemical Engineering,” Butterworth Publishers, Boston, MA (1989)
[2] Charinpanitkul T., Limsuwan P., Chalotorn C., Sano N., Yamamoto T., Tongpram P., Wongsarivej P., Soottitantawat A., W. Tanthapanichakoon, Synergetic Removal of Aqueous Phenol by Ozone and Activated Carbon Within Three-Phase Fluidized-Bed Reactor, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 16, p. 91 (2010)
[3] Nam W., Woo K., Han G.Y., Photooxidation of Anionic Surfactant (Sodium Lauryl Sulfate)
in a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor Using TiO2/SiO2 Photocatalyst, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 15, p. 348 (2009).
[4] Hossain S.M., Anantharaman N., Das M., Anaerobic Biogas Generation from Sugar Industry Wastewaters in Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Bioreactor, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology., 16, p. 58 (2009).
[5] McKnight C.A., Hackman L.P., Grace J.R., Macchi A., Kiel D., Tyler J., Fluid Dynamic Studies in Support of an Industrial Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Hydroprocessor, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering., 81, p. 338 (2003).
[6] Lin C.N., Wua S.Y., Chang J.S., Chang J.S., Biohydrogen Production in a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Using Sewage Sludge Immobilized by Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer, Bioresource Technology., 100, p. 3298 (2009).
[7] Raju H.P., Hossain S.M., Anantharaman N., Das M., Biodesulphurization of Natural gas in a Three-phase Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Using Thiobacillus Dentrificans, Journal of scientific and industrial research., 68, p. 406 (2009)
[8] Sarrouh B.F., da Silva S.S., Evaluation of the Performance of a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor with Immobilized Yeast Cells for the Biotechnological Production of Xylitol, International Journal. Chemical Reactor Engineering, 6, Article A75 (2008).
[9] Ensuncho L., Cuenca M.A., Legge R.L., Removal of Aqueous Phenol Using Immobilized Enzymes in a Bench Scale and Pilot Scale Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor, Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 27, p. 185 (2005).
[10] Lohi A., Cuenca M.A., Anania G., Upreti S.R., Wan L., Biodegradation of Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Wastewater Using a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor, Journal of Hazardous Materials., 154, p. 105 (2008).
[11] Song P.S., Choi W.K., Jung C.H., Oh W.Z., Kang S.H., Kang Y.J., Characteristics of the Copper Recovery from Wastewater in Two- and Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactors, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 12, p. 98 (2006).
[12] Souza R.R., Bresolin I.T.L., Bioni T.L., Gimenes M.L., Dias-Filho B.P., The Performance of a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactor in Treatment of Wastewater with High Organic Load, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 21, p. 219 (2004).
[13] Epstein N., Three-Phase Fluidization: Some Knowledge Gaps, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 59, p. 649 (1981).
[14] Muroyama K., Fan L.S., Fundamentals of. Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidization, AIChE J., 31, p. 1 (1985).
[15] Fraguio M.S., Cassanello M.C., Larachi F., Limtrakul S., Dudukovic M., Classifying Flow Regimes in Three-Phase Fluidized Beds from CARPT Experiments, Chemical Engineering Science, 62, p. 7523 (2007).
[16] Mena P.C., Ruzicka M.C., Rocha F.A., Teixeira J.A., Drahos J., Effect of Solids on Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Flow Regime Transition in Bubble Columns, Chemical Engineering Science, 60, p. 6013 (2005).
[17] Fan,L.S., Yang G.Q., Lee D.J., Tsuchiya K., Luo X., Some Aspects of High-Pressure Phenomena of Bubbles in Liquids and Liquid-Solid Suspensions, Chemical Engineering Science, 54, p. 4681 (1999).
[18] Ermakova A., Ziganskin G.K., Slin'ko M.G., Hydrodynamics of a Gas-Liquid Reactor with a Fluidized Bed of Solid Matter, Theoretical Foundations of  Chemical Engineering, 4, p. 84 (1970).
[19] Nacef S., Wild G., Laurent A., Scale Effects in Gas Liquid-Solid Fluidization, International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 32, p. 51 (1992).
[20] Mukherjee R.N., Bhattacharya P., Taraphdar D.K., “Fluidization and Its Applications,” ed. by Angelino, H., Couderc, J. P., Gibert, H., and C. Laguerie, 372, Cepadues-Editions, Toulouse (1974).
[21] Lee S.L.P., Soria A., de Lasa H.I., Evolution of Bubble Length Distributions in Three Phase Fluidized Beds, AIChE Journal, 36, p. 1763 (1990).
[22] Soda A., de Lasa H., Kinematic Waves and Flow Patterns in Bubble Columns and Three-Phase Fluidized Beds, Chemical Engineering Science, 47, p. 3403 (1992).
[23] Vince M.A., Lahey R.T.Jr., On the Development of an Objective Flow Regime Indicator, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 8, p. 93 (1982).
[24] Matsui G., Automatic Identification of Flow Regimes in Vertical Two-phase Flow Using Differential Pressure Fluctuations, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 95, p. 221 (1986).
[25] Luewisuthichat W., Tsutsumi A., Yoshida K., Fractal Analysis of Particle Trajectories in Three-Phase Systems, Transactions of IChemE, 73, p. 222 (1995).
[26] Cassanello M., Larachi F., Marie M.N., Guy C., Chaouki J., Experimental Characterization of the Solid Phase Chaotic Dynamics in Three-Phase Fluidization, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research., 34, p. 2971 (1995).
[27] Chaouki J., Larachi F., Dudukovic M.P., “Non-invasive Monitoring of Multiphase Flows, Elsevier, Amsterdam, (1997).
[28] Zhang J.-P., Grace J.R., Epstein N., Lim K.S., Flow Regime Identification in Gas-Liquid Flow and Three-Phase Fluidized Beds, Chemical Engineering Science, 52, p. 3979 (1997)
[29] Jena H.M., Sahoo B.K., Roy G.K., Meikap B.C., Characterization of Hydrodynamic Properties of a Gas-Liquid-Solid Three-Phase Fluidized Bed with Regular Shape Spherical Glass Bead Particles, Chemical Engineering Journal, 145, p. 50 (2008).
[30] Briens L.A., Briens C.L., Hay J., Margaritis A., Minimum Liquid Fluidization Velocity in Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds, AIChE Journal, 43, p. 1180 (1997).
[31] Ermakova A., Ziganskin G.K., Slin'ko M.G., Hydrodynamics of a Gas-liquid Reactor with a Fluidized Bed of Solid Matter, Theoretical Foundation of Chemical Engineering, 4, p. 84 (1970).
[32] Bloxom V.R., Costa J.M., Herranz J., MacWilliam G L., Roth S.R., “Determination and Correlation of Hydrodynamic Variables in a Three-Phase Fluidized Bed,” MIT Report N219; Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN, (1975).
[33] Begovitch J.M., Watson J.S., “Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Three-Phase Fluidized Beds.” In Fluidization; Davidson J.F., Kearins D.L., Eds.; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 190-195 (1978).
[34] Costa N., De Lucas A., Garcia P., Fluid Dynamics of Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds, Industrial Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 25, p. 849 (1986).
[35] Larachi F., Iliuta I., Rival O., Grandjean B.P.A., Prediction of Minimum Fluidization Velocity in Three-Phase Fluidized-Bed Reactors, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 39, p. 563 (2000).
[36] Zhang J., Epstein N., Grace J.R., Zhu J., Minimum Fluidization Velocity of Gas-Liquid Fluidized Beds, Transactions of IChemE, 73, p. 347 (1995).
[37] Zhang J., Epstein N., Grace J.R., Minimum Fluidization Velocities for Gas-Liquid-Solid Three-Phase Systems, PowderTechnology, 100, p. 113 (1998).
[38] Sheikhi A., “Experimental Study and Modeling of Hydrodynamics of Three-Phase Fluidized Beds,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran (2010).
[39] http://www.bksv.com/Library/Primers.aspx/Accelerometers and Conditioning, (Accessed on: Feb (2010).
[40] Abbasi M., “Determination of Fluidization Quality in Fluidized Beds Through the Vibration Analysis", M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran (2008).
[41] Zarghami R., “Conditional Monitoring of Fluidization Quality in Fluidized Beds,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran (2009).
[42] Dash P., Behera H., Lee I., Time Sequence Data Mining Using Time-Frequency Analysis and Soft Computing Techniques, Applied Soft Computing, 8, p. 202 (2008