Investigating the Influence of Biochar Catalyst in the Poplar Wood Pyrolysis Process to Produce Fuel

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering-University of Tabriz, Tabriz, I.R. IRAN


In this study, poplar wood pyrolysis in the vicinity of biochar catalyst produced from spruce wood gasification process has been investigated. For this purpose, in a laboratory-sized reactor, 30 g of the sample was loaded and the pyrolysis of the samples was performed at 500  and at atmospheric pressure. The results showed that the biochar catalyst did not have a significant effect on the bioavailability of pyrolysis, while the amount of gas product decreased (5.78 wt% decline) and the biochar increased (5.19 wt% increase); it also changed the specifications of the products. In the case of gas products, the summation of CO and CO2 levels increased in total (8.68 wt% increase), while the hydrocarbon gases with more than two carbon declined (16.10 wt% decline), but did not have a significant effect on CH4 levels. Biochar catalysts have increased the amount of aromatics and reduced linear compounds in bioavailability, indicating the tendency of Biochar catalysts to process the conversion of linear compounds to aromatics such as carboxylic acids. Biochar also had a strong tendency to de-oxygenate bioavailability, which led to improved bioavailability. The production quartet had less aromatics. DTG analysis showed that the solution from the catalytic pyrolysis process had a lighter and more regular molecular network. Catalyst XRD analysis also showed that a layer of carbon (coke) material from the polymerization process of the aromatic compounds in the vapors produced in the pyrolysis process was sitting on the catalyst. Considering all, the presence of biochar catalyst did not change the yield of bio-oil, while its quality such the aromatic content enhanced.


Main Subjects

[1] Klass D.L., "Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels and Chemicals", Entech. International, Inc., (1998).
[2] Marin E.C., Mahecha H.S., CARRASCO S.P., Biocombustibles Autosuficiencia Energetica, DYNA., 76(158): 101-110 (2009).
[4] Basu P., "Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis (Practical Design and Theory)", Elsevier, the Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK (2010).
[5] Lehmann J., Joseph S., "Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology", Routledge, (2009).
[6] Lappas A., Kalogiannis K., Iliopoulou E., Triantafyllidis K., Stefanidis S., Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass for Transportation Fuels, WIREs Energy and Environ., 1: 285-297 (2012).
[7] Pan P., Hu C., Yang W., Li Y., Dong L., Zhu L., Tong D., Qing R., Fan Y., The Direct Pyrolysis and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis sp. Residue for Renewable Bio-Oils, Bioresour. Technol., 101: 4593-4599 (2010).
[8] Iliopoulou E., Antonakou E., Karakoulia S., Vasalos I., Lappas A., Triantafyllidis K., Low Pressure Catalytic Co-Conversion of Biogenic Waste (Rapeseed Cake) and Vegetable Oil, Chem. Eng. J., 134: 51–57 (2007).
[9] Nokkosmaki M., Krause A., Leppamaki E., Kuoppala E., Chemical Analysis and Reactivity of Biomass Pyrolysis Products. Application to the Development of Carbon-Neutral Biofuels and Chemicals, Energy Fuels, 2000: 405-409 (1998).
[10] Zhang C., Hu X., Guo H., Wei T., Dong D., Hu G., Hu S., Xiang J., Liu Q., Wang Y., Anal J., Pyrolysis of Poplar, Cellulose and Lignin: Effects of Acidity and Alkalinity of the Metal Oxide Catalysts, Appl. Pyrolysis, 134: 590-605 (2018).
[11] Jin W., Singh K., Zondlo J., Co-Processing of Pyrolysis Vapors with Bio-Chars for Ex-Situ Upgrading. Renew. Energy, 83: 638-645 (2015).
[13] Salavati S., Zhang C., Zhang S., Liu Q., Gholizadeh M., Hu X., Cross-Interaaction during Co-Gasification of Wood, Weed, Plastic, Tire and Carbon, J. Environ. Manage., 250: 1-30 (2019).
[14] Alcock C.B., "Thermochemical Processes", First Edition, University of Norte Dame, Indiana, USA (2000).
[15] Gacparovic L., Korenova Z., Jelemensky L., Kinetic Study of Wood Chips Decomposition by TGA, Chem. pap., 64(2): 174-81 (2010).
[16] Scott D.S., Piskorz J., Radlein D., Liquid Products from the Continuous Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des Dev., 24(3): 581-8 (1985).
[17] Mohan D., Pittman C.U., Steele P.H., Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-Oil: A Critical Review, Energy Fuels, 20(3): 848-89 (2006).
[18] Onay O., Kockar O.M., Slow, Fast and Flash Pyrolysis of Rapeseed, Renew. Energy, 28(15): 2417-33 (2003).
[19] Iglesias M.J., Jimenez A., Laggoun-Defarge F., Suarez-Ruiz I., FT-IR Study of Pure Vitrains and Associated Coals, Energy Fuels, 9(3): 458-66 (1995).
[20] Fagbemi L., Khezami L., Capart R., Pyrolysis Products from Different Biomasses: Application to the Thermal Cracking of Tar, Appl. Energy, 69(4): 293-306 (2001).
[21] Pattiya A., Fast Pyrolysis, Indirect Thermochemical Liquefaction for Energy Applications, Woodhead Publishing, 1: 3-28 (2018).
[22] Brown R.C., Wang K., Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: Advances in Science and Technology, RSC., 50: (2017).
[23] Rowell R., "The Chemistry of Solid Wood", American Chemical Society, Washington (1984).
[24] Elliott D., Chemicals from Biomass. Encyclopaedia of Energy, 1: 163-174 (2004).
[26] Hwang I., Kobayashi J., Kawamoto K., Characterization of Products Obtained from Pyrolysis and Steam Gasification of Wood Waste. Waste Manage., 34: 402–410 (2014).
[27] Lva G., Wub S., Yanga G., Chena J., Liua Y., Kong F., Comparative Study of Pyrolysis Behaviors of Corn Stalk and its Three Components, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 104: 185–193 (2013).
[28] Stuart B., "Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications", John Wiley & Sons, UK (2004).
[29] Inglesias M., Jimenez A., Defarge F., Ruiz I., FT-IR Study of Pure Vitrains and Associated Coals, Energy Fuels, 1: 458-465 (1995).
[30] Krull E., Baldock J., Skjemstad J., Smernik R., Characteristic of Biochar: Organo-Chemical Properties, Biochar for Environment Science and Technology, Taylor & Francis Group, 1: 53-66 (2009).
[31] Atashi F., Gholizadeh M., Ataei F., Pyrolysis Analysis of Polyethylene Terephthalate: Effects of Carrier Gases (N2, He, and Ar) and Zeolite Catalyst (A4) on Yield, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 97: 3395-3405 (2022).
[32] Zhang C., Zhang L., Li Q., Wang Y., Liu Q., Wei T., Dong D., Salavati S., Catalytic Pyrolysis of Poplar Wood over Transition Metal Oxides: Correlation of Catalytic Behaviors with Physicochemical Properties of the Oxides, Biomass Bioenergy, 124: 125-141 (2019).
[33] Gunawan R., Xiang L., Lievens C., Gholizadeh M., Chaiwat W., Hu X., Mourant D., Brombly J., Li C., Upgrading of Bio-Oil into Advanced Biofuels and Chemicals. Part Ι. Transformation of GC-Detectable Light Species during the Hydrotreatment of Bio-Oil using Pd/C Catalyst, Fuel, 111: 709-717 (2013).
[35] Drozdzek M., Zawadzki J., Zielenkiewicz T., Klosinska T., The Influence of Method of Cellulose Isolation from Wood on the Degree and Index of Crystallinity, Wood Res., 60: 255-262 (2015).